Impaired Proinflammatory Response in Stringently Defined Otitis-prone Children During Viral Upper Respiratory Infections
Clinical Infectious Diseases
BACKGROUND: Viral upper respiratory infections (URIs) are common and often precipitate acute otitis media (AOM), caused by bacterial otopathogens, in young children. Acute inflammatory responses initiated in the early phase of viral URI contribute to preventing the development of AOM. Stringently-defined otitis-prone (sOP) children are susceptible to recurrent AOM. METHODS: We assessed proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in the nasopharynxes during viral URIs, and examined the different nasopharyngeal responses between viral URI events and the following AOM episodes in both sOP and non-otitis-prone (NOP) children. RESULTS: The sOP children exhibited significantly more AOM episodes per child (8.86-fold higher), viral URIs (P < .0001), and viral URIs followed by AOMs (P < .0001) than the NOP children. The sOP children had lower nasal proinflammatory levels of interleukin (IL)-6 (P = .05), IL-10 (P = .001), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (P = .004), and regulated on activation, normal T-cell-expressed and -secreted (RANTES; P = .002) than NOP children during viral URIs. NOP children had higher levels of IL-6 (P = .02), IL-10 (P = .02), interferon-γ (P = .003), TNF-α (P = .006), IL-1β (P = .022), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (P = .028), RANTES (P = .005), IL-2 (P = .002), and IL-17 (P = .007) during viral URIs versus AOMs following the URIs, when compared to sOP children. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that sOP children have more frequent viral URIs than NOP children, due to deficient antiviral nasopharyngeal proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses.
Medical Subject Headings
Child, Preschool; Cytokines (immunology); Female; Humans; Infant; Inflammation (immunology); Male; Nasopharynx (microbiology); Otitis Media (etiology, microbiology); Prospective Studies; Respiratory Tract Infections (complications, virology)
Ren, D., Xu, Q., Almudevar, A. L., & Pichichero, M. E. (2019). Impaired Proinflammatory Response in Stringently Defined Otitis-prone Children During Viral Upper Respiratory Infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 68 (9), 1566-1574. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy750