Rare Complication of Interventional Radiology-guided Arterial Embolization of the Gastroduodenal Artery in the Setting of Acute Gastrointestinal Bleed: Migrated Coils in the Duodenum
A 91-year-old male presented to the emergency room with hemodynamically significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), which showed frank blood in the duodenum interfering with the visualization. Hence, the patient underwent urgent interventional radiology (IR)-guided arteriogram and embolization. An EGD done 48 hours later showed a giant, non-bleeding, cratered duodenal ulcer with a visible vessel and vascular coils partially protruding into the duodenal bulb lumen. The patient had no evidence of bleeding post embolization. The patient presented three months later with abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) abdomen showed multiple liver abscesses. IR-guided drainage of abscesses was performed, and the culture grew Streptococcus intermedius. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and barium enema were unremarkable. The patient was treated with a prolonged course of intravenous (IV) antibiotics and recovered without any further issues. IR guided arterial embolization can be lifesaving in cases where GI bleeding cannot be controlled endoscopically, however, it can lead to serious complications, including endovascular coil migration into the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen causing infection and re-bleeding. Endovascular coil migration can occur immediately or several years later, which can result in fatal bleeding and infection. The best approach to prevent and manage migrated endovascular coils in the GI lumen remains unclear.
Kudaravalli, P., Saleem, S. A., Pendela, V. S., & Arif, M. O. (2020). Rare Complication of Interventional Radiology-guided Arterial Embolization of the Gastroduodenal Artery in the Setting of Acute Gastrointestinal Bleed: Migrated Coils in the Duodenum. Cureus, 12 (3), e7365. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7365