Teprasiran, A Small Interfering RNA, for the Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury in High-Risk Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Study
Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects up to 30% of cardiac surgery patients, leading to increased in-hospital and long-term morbidity and mortality. Teprasiran is a novel small interfering RNA (siRNA) that temporarily inhibits p53-mediated cell death, which underlies AKI. This prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled Phase 2 trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of a single 10 mg/kg dose of teprasiran vs. placebo (1:1), in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of AKI following cardiac surgery in high-risk patients. The primary endpoint was proportion of patients who developed AKI determined by serum creatinine (sCr) by post-operative day 5. Other endpoints included AKI severity and duration using various prespecified criteria. To inform future clinical development, a composite endpoint of major adverse kidney events at day 90 (MAKE90), including death, renal replacement therapy (RRT) and ≥25% reduction of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was assessed. Both sCr and serum cystatin-C (sCys) were used for eGFR assessments. A total of 360 patients were randomized in 41 centers. 341 dosed patients were 73±7.5 years old (mean±SD), 72% were male, and median Euroscore-II (European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation) was 2.6%. Demographics and surgical parameters were similar between groups. AKI incidence was 37% for teprasiran vs. 50% for placebo-treated patients, a 12.8% absolute risk reduction (ARR), p=0.02; OR=0.58 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.92). AKI severity and duration were also improved with teprasiran: 2.5% of teprasiran vs. 6.7% of placebo-treated patients had Grade 3 AKI; 7% teprasiran vs. 13% placebo-treated patients had AKI lasting for 5 days. No significant difference was observed for the MAKE90 composite in the overall population. No safety issues were identified with teprasiran treatment. The incidence, severity, and duration of early AKI in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery were significantly reduced following teprasiran administration. A Phase 3 study with a MAKE90 primary outcome which has recently completed enrollment was designed based on these findings (NCT03510897). URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ Unique Identifier: NCT02610283.
Thielmann, M., Corteville, D., Szabo, G., Swaminathan, M., Lamy, A., Lehner, L. J., Brown, C. D., Noiseux, N., Atta, M. G., Squiers, E. C., Erlich, S., Rothenstein, D., Molitoris, B., & Mazer, C. D. (2021). Teprasiran, A Small Interfering RNA, for the Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury in High-Risk Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Study. Circulation https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.053029