Reducing Fluoroquinolone Use and Clostridioides difficile Infections in Community Nursing Homes Through Hospital–Nursing Home Collaboration



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Journal of the American Medical Directors Association


Objective: Nursing homes (NHs) are an important target for antibiotic stewardship (AS). We describe a collaborative model to reduce Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs) in NHs through optimization of antibiotic use including a reduction in high-risk antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones. Design: Quasi-experimental, pre- and post-intervention study. Setting and participants: Six NHs in Monroe County, NY. Methods: A hospital-based AS expert team assisted NHs in identifying targets for improving antibiotic use. Interventions included (1) collaboration with a medical director advisory group to develop NH consensus guidelines for testing and treatment of 2 syndromes (urinary tract infections and pneumonia) for which fluoroquinolone use is common, (2) provision of multifaceted NH staff education on these guidelines and education of residents and family members on the judicious use of antibiotics, and (3) sharing facility-specific and comparative antibiotic and CDI data. We used Poisson regression to estimate antibiotic use per 1000 resident days (RD) and CDIs per 10,000 RD, pre- and post-intervention. Segmented regression analysis was used to estimate changes in fluoroquinolone and total antibiotic rates over time. Results: Postintervention, the monthly rate of fluoroquinolone days of therapy (DOT) per 1000 RD significantly decreased by 39% [rate ratio (RR) 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59-0.62, P <.001] across all NHs and the total antibiotic DOT decreased by 9% (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.90-0.92, P <.001). Interrupted time series analysis of fluoroquinolone and total DOT rates confirmed these changes. The quarterly CDI rate decreased by 18% (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-0.99, P =.042). Conclusions and implications: A hospital-NH partnership with a medical director advisory group achieved a significant reduction in total antibiotic and fluoroquinolone use and contributed to a reduction in CDI incidence. This approach offers one way for NHs to gain access to AS expertise and resources and to standardize practices within the local community.

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