Incidence and Prognostic Implications of Cardiac-Implantable Device-Associated Tricuspid Regurgitation: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression Analysis


Internal Medicine

Document Type


Publication Title

The American Journal of Cardiology


New-onset or worsening tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a well-established complication encountered after cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). However, there are limited and conflicting data on the true incidence and prognostic implications of this complication. This study aimed to bridge this current gap in the literature. Electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science were systematically searched from inception to March 2023, for studies reporting the incidence and/or prognosis of CIED-associated new or worsening TR. Potentially eligible studies were screened and selected according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A random effect model meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis were performed, and I-squared statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. A total of 52 eligible studies, with 130,759 patients were included in the final quantitative analysis with a mean follow-up period of 25.5 months. The mean age across included studies was 69.35 years, and women constituted 46.6% of the study population. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 50.15%. The incidence of CIED-associated TR was 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] 20% to 28%, p < 0.001) with an odds ratio of 2.44 (95% CI 1.58 to 3.77, p < 0.001). CIED-associated TR was independently associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.52, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.69, p < 0.001), heart failure (HF) hospitalizations (aHR 1.82, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.78, p = 0.006), and the composite of mortality and HF hospitalizations (aHR 1.96, 95% CI 1.33 to 2.87, p = 0.001) in the follow-up period. In conclusion, CIED-associated TR occurred in nearly one-fourth of patients after device implantation and was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and HF hospitalizations.

First Page


Last Page






Publication Date



Excerpta Medica

Medical Subject Headings

Humans; Female; Aged; Defibrillators, Implantable; Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency; Prognosis; Stroke Volume; Incidence; Ventricular Function, Left; Heart Failure; Regression Analysis; Retrospective Studies

PubMed ID