The Pathogenesis of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Myopathic Uteri
Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
It has been suggested that impaired venous drainage and endometrial vascular ectasia (EMVE), secondary to increased intramural pressure, explains abnormal bleeding in fibroid uteri. Striking EMVE with extravasated red blood cells (ecchymosis) has also been seen in uteri with grossly obvious myometrial hyperplasia (MMH), suggesting that increased intramural pressure can cause EMVE in the absence of fibroids. EMVE with MMH may explain the century old association of clinically enlarged uteri with abnormal bleeding, and this same mechanism may be operative in myopathic uteri with grossly obvious adenomyosis. EMVE with associated thrombosis, ecchymosis, and/or stromal breakdown is commonly seen in random sections of hysterectomies for bleeding. EMVE may also be associated with endothelial hyperplasia, consistent with a reaction to endothelial injury due to impaired venous drainage. This further supports the theory that EMVE bleeds when thrombosis occurs, due to Virchow's Triad (stasis, endothelial injury, and hypercoagulability). EMVE may be "the lesion for which surgery was performed" in hysterectomies with otherwise unexplained bleeding.
Turner, B. M., Cramer, S. F., & Heller, D. s. (2021). The Pathogenesis of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Myopathic Uteri. Annals of Diagnostic Pathology, 52 (151726) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2021.151726