Clinicopathological Parameters Predicting Malignancy in Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast


Infectious Diseases

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Introduction Phyllodes tumor (PT) is an uncommon fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast. It is a biphasic tumor with stromal and epithelial components, with a tendency to recur. Because of its wide range of disease manifestations, it has been subclassified into three categories, i.e., benign, borderline, and malignant, based on several histological parameters. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinicopathological features associated with malignancy in breast PTs. Methods We conducted a retrospective study at the Department of Histopathology at Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 146 biopsy-proven cases of PTs were enrolled in the study. Clinical data were obtained from the clinical referral forms. Specimens were obtained from either lumpectomy or simple mastectomy. The specimens obtained were received at the laboratory where after gross examination, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were prepared, which were sectioned, stained, and studied by a senior histopathologist. Pathological features, such as mitotic count, necrosis, stromal atypia, stromal overgrowth, and heterologous elements, were observed. Based on these features, the PTs were classified into benign, borderline, and malignant tumors. Results The mean age of the PTs in our setup was 40.65 ± 12.17 years with a mean size of 9.40 ± 6.49 cm. Malignant PT was found to be the most prevalent in our population, accounting for 63 (43.2%) cases, followed by borderline (51, 34.9%) and benign (32, 21.9%). A significant association was found between the tumor subtype and patient age, i.e., patients diagnosed with malignant and borderline PTs were found to be of older age (mean 42.82 ± 12.94 and 42.05 ± 11.31 years, respectively) than those diagnosed with benign PTs (mean age 34.12 ± 9.75 years). Moreover, malignant PTs were associated with larger tumor size (mean 11.46 ± 6.08) compared with the other two subtypes. Conclusion We found a significant association among patient age, tumor size, and PT subtype. Therefore, apart from the usual histological parameters, patient age and tumor size are important parameters for predicting the behavior of breast PT and should be considered for management.

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