COVID-19 Infection Is Associated With Increased In-Hospital Mortality and Complications in Patients With Acute Heart Failure: Insight From National Inpatient Sample (2020)


Internal Medicine

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Journal of Intensive Care Medicine


Introduction: Patients with acute heart failure (AHF) exacerbation are susceptible to complications in the setting of COVID-19 infection. Data regarding the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients admitted with AHF is limited.

Methods: We used the national inpatient sample database by utilizing ICD-10 codes to identify all hospitalizations with a diagnosis of AHF in 2020. We classified the sample into AHF with COVID-19 infection versus those without COVID-19. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were acute myocardial infarction, need for pressors, mechanical cardiac support, cardiogenic shock, and cardiac arrest. Also, we evaluated for acute pulmonary embolism (PE), bacterial pneumonia, need for a ventilator, and acute kidney injury (AKI).

Results: We identified a total of 694,920 of AHF hospitalizations, 660,463 (95.04%) patients without COVID-19 and 34,457 (4.96%) with COVID-19 infection. For baseline comorbidities, diabetes mellitus, chronic heart failure, ESRD, and coagulopathy were significantly higher among AHF patients with COVID-19 (P < .01). While CAD, prior MI, percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary artery bypass graft, atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and peripheral vascular disease were higher among those without COVID-19. After adjustment for baseline comorbidities, in-hospital mortality (aOR 5.08 [4.81 to 5.36]), septic shock (aOR 2.54 [2.40 to 2.70]), PE (aOR 1.75 [1.57 to 1.94]), and AKI (aOR 1.33 [1.30 to 1.37]) were significantly higher among AHF with COVID-19 patients. The mean length of stay (5 vs 7 days, P < .01) and costs of hospitalization ($42,143 vs $60,251, P < .01) were higher among AHF patients with COVID-19 infection.

Conclusion: COVID-19 infection in patients with AHF is associated with significantly higher in-hospital mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, septic shock, and AKI along with higher resource utilization. Predictors for mortality in AHF patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, COVID-19 infection, patients with end-stage heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. Studies on the impact of vaccination against COVID-19 in AHF patients are needed.

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