Sleep Quality Among People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus During COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence from Qatar's National Diabetes Center


Internal Medicine

Document Type


Publication Title

Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity : Targets and Therapy


Purpose: Sleep disturbance is suspected to increase during the COVID-19 pandemic, and people with type 2 DM are known to have a higher risk of sleep disturbance. We aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of sleep disturbance through Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Patients and methods: We randomly selected two hundred eighty-eight people with T2DM from the outpatient clinics of the National Diabetes Centre in Qatar. We used Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Spearman, and Point Biserial correlation tests to examine the association between sleep quality and the independent variables. Finally, we conducted multiple logistics regression to identify the predictors of poor sleep quality and set the alpha level at 0.05.

Results: In our sample, the mean age (±SD) was 51.4 (± 9.5) years, and 64.3% of the study participants were males. The median (IQR) duration of diabetes was 10 (11) years. Additionally, 6.3% of the participants were on insulin. The median HbA1c was 7.6% (2.4). Three in ten patients reported poor sleep quality (PSQI> 5); (n=103; 35.8%). Poor sleep quality was statistically associated with young age, previous history of sleep disturbance, prior diagnosis of sleep disorders, high depression score, and high perceived stress score. After adjusting for confounders, only high depressive symptoms score and previous history of sleep disorder were significant predictors of poor sleep quality (p < 0.001), with adjusted odd ratios of (aOR = 1.421; 95% CI: 1.242-1.625) and (aOR = 3.208; 95% CI: 1.574-6.537), respectively.

Conclusion: The prevalence of poor sleep quality among people with T2DM during the COVID-19 pandemic is high. Physicians must screen for depression, stress, and previous history of sleep disorder to tackle poor sleep among T2DM.

First Page


Last Page






Publication Date


PubMed ID