The Effect of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors on Outcomes of Patients Treated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: a Retrospective Cohort Study


Internal Medicine

Document Type


Publication Title

Clinical Oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))


AIMS: Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) are associated with improved survival outcomes in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), but the data on the response to treatment and tumour-based endpoints across different tumour types are unknown.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study at two tertiary referral centres in Taiwan. All adult patients treated with ICIs between January 2015 and December 2021 were included. The primary outcome was overall survival and the secondary outcomes were progression-free survival (PFS) and clinical benefit rates.

RESULTS: In total, 734 patients were enrolled in our study, of which 171 were RAASi users and 563 were non-users. Compared with non-users, RAASi users had a longer median overall survival [26.8 (interquartile range 11.3-not reached) versus 15.2 (interquartile range 5.1-58.4) months, P < 0.001] and PFS [12.2 (interquartile range 3.9-34.5) versus 5.0 (interquartile range 2.2-15.2) months, P < 0.001]. In univariate Cox proportional hazard analyses, the use of RAASi was associated with a 40% reduction in the risk of mortality [hazard ratio 0.58 (95% confidence interval 0.44-0.76), P < 0.001] and disease progression [hazard ratio 0.62 (95% confidence interval 0.50-0.77), P < 0.001]. The association remained significant after adjusting for underlying comorbidities and cancer therapy in multivariate Cox analyses. A similar trend was observed for PFS. Furthermore, RAASi users experienced a greater clinical benefit rate than non-users (69% versus 57%, P = 0.006). Importantly, the use of RAASi before ICI initiation was not associated with improved overall survival and PFS. RAASi were not associated with an increased risk of adverse events.

CONCLUSION: The use of RAASi is associated with improved survival outcomes, treatment response and tumour-based endpoints in patients undergoing immunotherapy.

First Page


Last Page








Publication Date


Medical Subject Headings

Adult; Humans; Renin-Angiotensin System; Retrospective Studies; Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (therapeutic use); Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (therapeutic use, pharmacology); Hyperkalemia (chemically induced, complications, drug therapy); Renal Insufficiency, Chronic (chemically induced, complications, drug therapy)

PubMed ID