Title

“Clots and Failures” A Case of COVID-19 Causing STEMI and Persistent Cardiogenic Shock Ultimately Requiring LVAD

Department

Internal Medicine

Document Type

Article

Publication Title

The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation

Abstract

Introduction

We present a case of COVID-19 causing hypercoagulability and inflammatory stress leading to STEMI in a patient who went on to develop persistent cardiogenic shock requiring LVA) implantation.

Case Report

57-year-old lady developed COVID-19 infection in May 2020. In June 2020, she presented with chest pain, was noted to have STEMI on EKG, complicated by cardiac arrest with ROSC in 14 minutes. She was in cardiogenic shock as well and was started on veno-arterial ECMO. She underwent left anterior descending artery stent placement. Further hospitalization was complicated by persistent cardiogenic shock and complete heart block and underwent pacemaker and cardiac-defibrillator implantation. She developed pulmonary edema, acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis, shock liver, and persistent cardiogenic shock. She was weaned off VA-ECMO after 4 days but continued to have severely reduced cardiac function. RHC revealed severe volume overload, pulmonary venous hypertension, low cardiac output, and right heart dysfunction. Echo showed severe LV dysfunction with an EF of 15%. A femoral intra-aortic balloon pump(IABP) was placed on July 7, 2020. An attempt was made to wean her off of IABP on July 10th,however, it was unsuccessful and she was transitioned to axillary intra-aortic balloon pump. She remained IABP dependent thereafter and on July 15th, given persistent cardiogenic shock, decision was made to pursue advanced heart failure therapies. After multi-disciplinary discussion, the decision to pursue LVAD implantation was made. She underwent a successful LVAD implantation on July 20th . She failed an extubation trial and underwent tracheostomy on July 23rd . Post LVAD, she developed atrial fibrillation and was started on digoxin and amiodarone. Her symptoms improved and she was subsequently discharged to rehabilitation in late August on amiodarone, digoxin, metoprolol, prasugrel, warfarin, spironolactone and lisinopril. The detailed timeline is shown in figure 1.

Summary

Hypercoagulability and severe inflammatory stress leading to life-threatening illness is a significant complication of COVID-19 infection. A low threshold for suspecting and treating hypercoagulability and inflammatory induced myocardial ischemia and injury and cardiogenic shock is a reasonable strategy to decrease acute as well as chronic morbidity and mortality.

DOI

10.1016/j.healun.2021.01.2130

Publication Date

4-2021

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