Demographics and Trends of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy-Related Mortality in the United States, 1999-2020


Internal Medicine

Document Type


Publication Title

Current Problems in Cardiology


There are limited data on the mortality trends of HCM in the United States. To study the demographics and trends of mortality in patients with HCM, a retrospective cohort analysis was done with mortality data of patients with HCM listed as an underlying cause of death in the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research database (CDC-WONDER) from January 1999 to December 2020. The analysis took place in February 2022. First, we measured HCM-related age-adjusted mortality rate (AAMR) per 100,000 US population stratified by sex, race, ethnicity, and geographic area. We then calculated the Annual Percentage Change (APC) for AAMR for each. A total of 24,655 HCM-related deaths occurred between 1999 and 2020. The AAMR for HCM-related deaths declined from 0.5/100,000 patients in 1999 to 0.2 in 2020. The APC changes are as follows: -6.8 (95% CI: -11.8 to -1.5) from 2002 to 2009, -1.23 (95% CI -13.8 to 13.2) from 2009 to 2014, -6.71 (95% CI -46.2 to 61.7) from 2014 to 2017 and remained at 2.07 (95% CI -26.1 to 41.1) from 2017 to 2020. Men had consistently higher AAMR than women. Overall, AAMR in men was 0.4 (95% CI: 0.4-0.5), and in women was 0.3 (95% CI: 0.3-0.3). A similar trend was noticed in men and women over the years, starting from 1999 (AAMR men: 0.7 and women: 0.4) to 2020 (AAMR men: 0.3 and women: 0.2). AAMRs were highest among black or African American patients 0.6 (95% CI: 0.5-0.6), followed by non-Hispanic and Hispanic white 0.3 (95% CI 0.3-0.3) and Asian or Pacific Islander 0.2 (95% CI 0.2-0.2). There was substantial variation in each region in the US. States such as California, Ohio, Michigan, Oregon, and Wyoming had the highest AAMR. Large metropolitan cities had higher AAMR than non-metropolitan cities. During the study period from 1999 to 2020, HCM-related mortality steadily decreased. The highest AAMR was observed among men, black patients, and residents of metropolitan areas. States such as California, Ohio, Michigan, Oregon, and Wyoming had the highest AAMR.

First Page








Publication Date


PubMed ID