Colonization, Density, and Antibiotic Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus Influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis among PCV13-Vaccinated Infants in the First Six Months of Life in Rochester, New York: A Cohort Study



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Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society


Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Haemophilus influenzae (Hflu), and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) nasopharyngeal colonization precedes disease pathogenesis and varies among settings and countries. We sought to assess colonization prevalence, density, Spn serotypes, and antibiotic resistance in children in the first 6 months of life in pediatric primary care settings.

Methods: Prospective cohort study in Rochester, NY during 2018-2020. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 101 children at age 1, 2, and 3 weeks, then 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months. Spn serotypes were determined by Quellung. Oxacillin resistance for Spn and β-lactamase production by Hflu and Mcat was tested. All children received PCV13 vaccine according to U.S. recommended schedule.

Results: Spn, Hflu, and Mcat colonization was detected in only 5% of infants before age 2 months old. Cumulative prevalence was 34% for Spn, 10% for Hflu, and 53% for Mcat in children ≤6 months of age. Nasopharyngeal bacterial density of Spn, Hflu, and Mcat (x = 2.71 log) in children ≤ 6 months of age was lower than at 7-24 months of age (x = 3.15 log, p < 0.0001). Predominant serotypes detected ≤ 6 months of age were 23B (16.7%), 22F (12.9%), 15B/C (11%), and 16F (9.2%). In total, 14.8% of Spn isolates were oxacillin resistant and 66.7% of Hflu isolates were β-lactamase producing.

Conclusion: Spn, Hflu, and Mcat nasopharyngeal colonization was uncommon and of low density among children ≤ 6 months old, especially among children < 2 months of age. Non-PCV13 serotypes predominated and a different serotype distribution was observed in ≤ 6-month olds compared to 7- to 24-month olds.

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Humans; Infant; Child; Child, Preschool; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Cohort Studies; Pneumococcal Infections; Moraxella catarrhalis; Prospective Studies; New York; Haemophilus influenzae; Drug Resistance, Microbial; beta-Lactamases; Oxacillin; Carrier State

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