Incidence, mortality and predictors of acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis


Internal Medicine

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Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology


Background and Aims: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients with cirrhosis but the incidence is heteroge-neous among studies. We performed a meta-analysis to describe the incidence of AKI and its impact on patient mortality in patients with cirrhosis. We also evaluated the admission variables predicting development of AKI. Methods: A systematic search of various databases was performed up to November 2018. Meta-analyses were performed using ran-dom effects models. Results: Of 18,474 patients with cirrhosis from 30 selected studies, 5,648 developed AKI, with a pooled incidence of 29% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 28-30%, I of 99%). In-hospital mortality assessed in eight studies was six-fold higher among AKI patients, as compared to those without AKI (odds ratio [OR] 6.72, 95% CI: 3.47-13, p0.0001). Mortality remained significantly high, at days 30 and 90 and even at 1-year follow up after development of AKI. Of 12 admission variables analyzed, model for end-stage liver disease score, Child-Pugh-Turcotte stage C, presence of ascites, and presence of sepsis/septic shock were statistically significant risk factors for AKI. Conclusions: AKI occurred in about 29% of patients with cirrhosis and is associated with a six-fold increased risk of in-hospital mortality. Mortality remained high even in long-term follow-up of 1 year. Patients at risk for AKI development can be recognized at admission. Prospective studies are needed to develop strategies for improving outcome of these patients. 2 2

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