Durability of protection and immunogenicity of AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) COVID-19 vaccine over 6 months
The Journal of Clinical Investigation
Background: We report updated safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) from an ongoing phase 3 trial.
Methods: Adults at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection were randomized (2:1), stratified by age, to receive 2 doses of AZD1222 or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was confirmed SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcriptase PCR-positive (RT-PCR-positive) symptomatic COVID-19 at 15 or more days after a second dose in baseline SARS-CoV-2-seronegative participants. The 21,634 and 10,816 participants were randomized to AZD1222 and placebo, respectively.
Findings: Data cutoff for this analysis was July 30, 2021; median follow-up from second dose was 78 and 71 days for the double-blind period (censoring at unblinding or nonstudy COVID-19 vaccination) and 201 and 82 days for the period to nonstudy COVID-19 vaccination (regardless of unblinding) in the AZD1222 and placebo groups, respectively. For the primary efficacy end point in the double-blind period (141 and 184 events; incidence rates: 39.2 and 118.8 per 1,000 person years), vaccine efficacy was 67.0% (P < 0.001). In the period to nonstudy COVID-19 vaccination, incidence of events remained consistently low and stable through 6 months in the AZD1222 group; for the primary efficacy end point (328 and 219 events; incidence rates: 36.4, 108.4) and severe/critical disease (5 and 13 events; incidence rates: 0.6, 6.4), respective vaccine efficacy estimates were 65.1% and 92.1%. AZD1222 elicited humoral immune responses over time, with waning at day 180. No emergent safety issues were seen.
Conclusion: AZD1222 is safe and well tolerated, demonstrating durable protection and immunogenicity with median follow-up (AZD1222 group) of 6 months.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04516746.FundingAstraZeneca; US government.
American Society for Clinical Investigation
Medical Subject Headings
COVID-19; COVID-19 Vaccines; ChAdOx1 nCoV-19; Humans; SARS-CoV-2; Vaccination
Sobieszczyk, M., Maaske, J., Falsey, A. R., Sproule, S., Robb, M., Frenck, R., Tieu, H., Mayer, K., Corey, L., Neuzil, K., Tong, T., Brewinski Isaacs, M., Janes, H., Bansal, H., Edwards, L., Green, J., Kelly, E., Shoemaker, K., Takas, T., White, T., Bhuyan, P., Villafana, T., & Hirsch, I. (2022). Durability of protection and immunogenicity of AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) COVID-19 vaccine over 6 months. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 132 (18), e160565. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI160565