Background Compartment syndrome is the condition when elevated pressures within an osseofascial compartment cause vascular and neurological compromise, leading to muscle ischemia and possible necrosis if left untreated. It commonly occurs after a traumatic event (e.g., crush injury, fracture, trauma); however, compartment syndrome can still happen spontaneously and in any compartment of the body.

The objective of this case report is to present the signs and symptoms of upper arm compartment syndrome, which is a rare site for compartment syndrome, along with a review of the diagnosis and treatment.

Case Report A 62-year-old man receiving anticoagulant therapy for atrial fibrillation developed compartment syndrome in the flexor compartment of his upper arm, secondary to an axillary hematoma, diagnosed clinically.

Conclusion Upper arm compartment syndrome is uncommon but can happen. Early recognition and intervention are limb-saving.

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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License